germanium tabel tailing

  • NRC 10 CFR Part 20Appendix BRadionuclide Table

    Nov 01 2018 · Table 1 Occupational Values Table 2 Effluent Concentrations Table 3 Releases to Sewers Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 3 Col. 1 Col. 2 Oral Ingestion ALI (µCi) Inhalation Air (µCi/ml) Water (µCi/ml) Monthly Average Concentration (µCi/ml) ALI (µCi) DAC (µCi/ml) 32 Germanium-68 D see 66 Ge 5E 3 4E 3 2E-6 5E-9 6E-5 6E-4 W see 66 Ge1E 2

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  • GermaniumElement information properties and uses

    Germanium s existence was predicted before anyone isolated it. This was a triumph for Dmitri Mendeleev in his construction of the periodic table. By 1869 Mendeleev had assembled a crude table of the known elements arranging them according to their chemical properties and atomic weights. But his table had a number of prominent gaps.

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  • Germanium Deposits in the United States

    This data release provides data for the single site in the United States (U.S.) that has public record of germanium (Ge) production. Germanium which is currently classified as a critical mineral in the U.S. is also extracted as a byproduct from deposits in Alaska Washington and Tennessee. However there is no public information that documents germanium production from these deposits.

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  • (PDF) Germanium Current and Novel Recovery Processes

    Germanium refinery production of (a) global main producers between 2014 and 2017 excluding the USA- includes Belgium Canada Germany and others 20 29

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  • Germanium Single Lens

    The single crystal of germanium used in the semiconductor is less absorption in the infrared wavelength of 220μm and it can be used as an optical element of the infrared light. It is a single lens which was made with the germanium crystal is used as a lens of a

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  • The periodic table of the elements by WebElements

    The periodic table is a masterpiece of organised chemical information and the evolution of chemistry s periodic table into the current form is an astonishing achievement. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) confirmed the names of elements 113 115 117 and 118 as

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  • Recent Advances in Germanium‐Based Photoinitiator

    Jan 22 2018 · Table 1 shows λ max values and extinction coefficients for the longest wavelength absorption bands of all reported acylgermanes. Table 1. λ max values and extinction coefficients for the longest wavelength absorption bands of monoacylgermanes 2 ad 19 21 bisacylgermanes 5 a5 f 36 trisacylgermane 7 25 and tetraacylgermanes 6 a

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  • Automatic analysis of gamma-ray spectra from germanium

    The shapes which seem to fit the data best all have a Gaussian peak with the addition of a skewed term or tailing on the low energy side plus a long tail or step below the peak. Fig. 2 shows a spectrum taken with a germanium detector of a 133Ba source. The strong peaks exhibit many of the peak-shape characteristics discussed below.

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  • Recent Advances in Germanium‐Based Photoinitiator

    Jan 22 2018 · Table 1 shows λ max values and extinction coefficients for the longest wavelength absorption bands of all reported acylgermanes. Table 1. λ max values and extinction coefficients for the longest wavelength absorption bands of monoacylgermanes 2 ad 19 21 bisacylgermanes 5 a5 f 36 trisacylgermane 7 25 and tetraacylgermanes 6 a

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  • A Toxicological Evaluation of Germanium Sesquioxide

    A battery of OECD- and GLP-compliant toxicological studies was performed to assess the safety of a highly purified germanium sesquioxide an organic form of the naturally occurring nonessential trace element germanium. Germanium dioxide and germanium lactate citrate (inorganic germaniums) have been shown to induce renal toxicity whereas germanium sesquioxide (an organic germanium) has

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  • CNAMethod for selectively leaching germanium

    The invention relates to a method for selectively leaching germanium and gallium from complex smelting slag with the germanium and the gallium or ore with the germanium and the gallium and belongs to the field of non-ferrous metal hydrometallurgy and secondary-resource recycling. The method for selectively leaching the germanium and the gallium from the complex smelting slag with the

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  • GeGermanium

    GeGermanium Introduction Germanium is a metalloid element and a member of group 14 of the periodic table along with C Si Sn and Pb. The element has an atomic mass of 32 an atomic mass of 73 three main oxidation states (-4 2 and 4) of which

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  • A Significant Shift of Schottky Barrier Heights at

    J ¼ J s exp½qV=ðnkTÞf 1 2exp½ qV=ðkTÞg A=cm J s ¼ A T2 exp½ð bn 2 Þ=ðkTÞ A=cm ð1Þ where J s is the saturation current density estimated by a linier extrapolation to logarithmic J at V ¼ 0 from the reverse bias side is an effective SBH lowering and A is the Richardson constant (about 140 for n-Ge 48A/cm 2/K for p-Ge6)) both cases of GeO

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  • GermaniumPeriodic Table

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  • Periodic TablePtable

    Interactive periodic table showing names electrons and oxidation states. Visualize trends 3D orbitals isotopes and mix compounds. Fully descriptive writeups.

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  • WebElements Periodic Table » Germanium » index

    This table has links to all the properties of germanium included within WebElements. Follow the "Link to definition of property" or "Link to data for property" of the element germanium. Link

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  • 4. Doping of Group-IV-Based Materials

    Table 4.1 summarizes some important physical properties relevant for ion implantation in silicon germanium and Si Ge alloys with and .A linear interpolation between the endpoint elements silicon and germanium is used to derive the values for the average atomic mass and the Debye temperature in SiGe for different compositions.

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  • Development of Glass Ceramics Made From Ferrous Tailings

    There are 4 types of ferrous tailings with single- metal which are as follows Fig. 1 SEM photograph of glass ceramics made (1) Ferrous tailings of Anshan type with high from ferrous tailings and slag silicon content Table 1 Compositions of typical glass ceramics Type of glass ceramics Main crystal phase Composition Frame shape of silicate P

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  • USMIN Mineral Deposit DatabaseUSGS

    Germanium which is currently classified as a critical mineral in the U.S. is also extracted as a byproduct from deposits in Alaska Washington and Tennessee. However there is no public information that documents germanium production from these

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  • Modelling of Radiological Health Risks from Gold Mine

    Modelling of Radiological Health Risks from Gold Mine Tailings in Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area South Africa Manny Mathuthu 1 Caspah Kamunda 1 and Morgan Madhuku 2 1 2 A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control

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  • Heavy metalsWikipedia

    Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities atomic weights or atomic numbers.The criteria used and whether metalloids are included vary depending on the author and context. In metallurgy for example a heavy metal may be defined on the basis of density whereas in physics the distinguishing criterion might be atomic number while a chemist would likely be

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  • Development of Glass Ceramics Made From Ferrous Tailings

    There are 4 types of ferrous tailings with single- metal which are as follows Fig. 1 SEM photograph of glass ceramics made (1) Ferrous tailings of Anshan type with high from ferrous tailings and slag silicon content Table 1 Compositions of typical glass ceramics Type of glass ceramics Main crystal phase Composition Frame shape of silicate P

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  • Automatic analysis of gamma-ray spectra from germanium

    The shapes which seem to fit the data best all have a Gaussian peak with the addition of a skewed term or tailing on the low energy side plus a long tail or step below the peak. Fig. 2 shows a spectrum taken with a germanium detector of a 133Ba source. The strong peaks exhibit many of the peak-shape characteristics discussed below.

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  • Is Germanium a Miracle Cure Healthline

    Oct 09 2019 · Common names include germanium-132 (Ge-132) and germanium sesquioxide. A 2012 study examined changes in rat fecal bacteria and found no correlation that Ge-132 accumulated in

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  • Ultrafiltration For Tailings Recovery From Copper Mining

    19 Sep 2003 A novel biotechnological process for germanium recovery from brown coal. Xianwan Y. Bacterial tank leaching of zinc from flotation tailings. Panin V.V. . Extraction of copper from mining residues and sediments by addition of .. Mercury removal by polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration using chitosan as the. Read more

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  • Germanium Single Lens

    The single crystal of germanium used in the semiconductor is less absorption in the infrared wavelength of 220μm and it can be used as an optical element of the infrared light. It is a single lens which was made with the germanium crystal is used as a lens of a

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  • Kipushi Project Ivanhoe Mines Ltd.

    Dec 13 2017 · In addition to producing copper and zinc the mine produced 12 673 tonnes of lead and approximately 278 tonnes of germanium between 1956 and 1978. The mine had been managed on a care and maintenance basis since 1993. The main pump undergoing testing at

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  • (PDF) Transformation of germanium to fluogermanates

    Electronic band structure as probed by ellipsometry has been associated with the germanium oxide crystals and disorder-induced band tailing effects at the interface of the germanate layer and the

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  • Electrical properties of Germanium (Ge)

    The electron Hall factor versus donor density. 1.T = 300 K 2.T = 77 K. (Babich et al. 1969 ). Resistivity versus impurity concentration. T = 300 K. (Cuttris 1981 ). Temperature dependences of hole mobility for different doping levels.

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  • Germanium Current and Novel Recovery Processes IntechOpen

    Jan 22 2018 · Germanium (Ge) was discovered in Freiberg in 1885. One year later it was isolated from the uncommon mineral argyrodite (Ag 8 GeS 6) by the chemist Clemens Winkler .Ge is a chemical element with a grayish-white color whose position in the periodic table indicates that it has physicochemical properties similar to silicon (Si) and tin (Sn).

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  • Recent Advances in Germanium‐Based Photoinitiator

    Jan 22 2018 · Table 1 shows λ max values and extinction coefficients for the longest wavelength absorption bands of all reported acylgermanes. Table 1. λ max values and extinction coefficients for the longest wavelength absorption bands of monoacylgermanes 2 ad 19 21 bisacylgermanes 5 a5 f 36 trisacylgermane 7 25 and tetraacylgermanes 6 a

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  • Automatic analysis of gamma-ray spectra from germanium

    The shapes which seem to fit the data best all have a Gaussian peak with the addition of a skewed term or tailing on the low energy side plus a long tail or step below the peak. Fig. 2 shows a spectrum taken with a germanium detector of a 133Ba source. The strong peaks exhibit many of the peak-shape characteristics discussed below.

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  • Critical Mineral Resources of the United States Economic

    From the Stone Age to the present mineral commodities have been essential ingredients for building and advancing civilization. Today discovery of new uses for an increasing number of elements available within the Periodic Table of Elements is enabling rapid innovations in technology and materials science. Advances in telecommunications information technology health care energy

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  • The Periodic Table of Elements IssueBloomberg

    On the 150th anniversary of the periodic table we cover every element. scandium in 1879 and germanium in 1886 the theories underlying the table were shown to be true. Tailings dam

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  • GeGermanium

    GeGermanium Introduction Germanium is a metalloid element and a member of group 14 of the periodic table along with C Si Sn and Pb. The element has an atomic mass of 32 an atomic mass of 73 three main oxidation states (-4 2 and 4) of which

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  • Application of Germanium Detectors to Environmental Monitoring

    Table 16 is a compilation of LLD values for spectra containing a single radionuclide (single-nuclide LLDs) calculated by the HASL-300 method for several germanium and NaI(T£) systems.158 Background for the germanium detectors was estimated by evaluating the background in spectral regions corresponding to an FEP with the use of procedures

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  • DETECTION OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL WITH HIGH

    GERMANIUM (HPGe) AND MERCURIC IODIDE (HgI2) GAMMA DETECTORS THESIS Table of Contents Page tailing and Compton scatter effects riding on a Compton background.. 41 18. Intrinsic peak efficiencies of the HgI2 and HPGe detectors using solid-angle

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